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Salesa, M.; Anton, M.; Turner, A.; Morales, J.
Aspects of the functional morphology in the cranial and cervical skeleton of the sabre-toothed cat Paramachairodus ogygia (Kaup, 1832) (Felidae, Machairodontinae) from the Late Miocene of Spain: implications for the origins of the machairodont killing bite
2005  Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society (144): 363-377

The skull and cervical anatomy of the sabre-toothed felid _Paramachairodus ogygia_ (Kaup, 1832) is described in this paper, with special attention paid to its functional morphology. Because of the scarcity of fossil remains, the anatomy of this felid has been very poorly known. However, the recently discovered Miocene carnivore trap of Batallones-1, near Madrid, Spain, has yielded almost complete skeletons of this animal, which is now one of the best known machairodontines. Consequently, the machairodont adaptations of this primitive sabre-toothed felid can be assessed for the first time. Some characters, such as the morphology of the mastoid area, reveal an intermediate state between that of felines and machairodontines, while others, such as the flattened upper canines and verticalized mandibular symphysis, show clear machairodont affinities.

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