This photo of a tiger from the Caucasus
in the Berlin Zoo was published in 1899
The Caspian tiger has been extinct since the early 1970s from hunting and settlement in it range.
The last known tiger in the Causasus region was killed in 1922 near Tbilisi, Georgia, after taking
domestic livestock (Ognev 1935). The last known tiger in turkey was killed near Uludere,
Hakkari province, in 1970 (Üstay 1990). The Only tiger reported from Irag was
killed near Mosul in 1887 (Kock 1990). The last known tiger in Iran was killed in 1959
in Mohammad Reza Shah (now Golestan) II (Vuosalo 1976). One tiger was killed near the
Lob Nor basin, Xinjiang, China (Ognev 1935) in 1899 and tigers had disappeared from the
Tarim River basin in Xinjiang by the 1920s.
Tigers disappeared from the Manas River basin in th Tian Shan mountains, west of Urumqi, in the 1960s.
The last record of the tiger on the Ili River, their last stronghold in the region of Lake Balkhash, dates to
1948. The last record from the lower reaches of the Amu-Darya river near the Aral Sea was an unconfirmed
observation near Nukus in 1968, while tigers disappeared from the river's lower reaches and the Pyzandh
Valley, once a stronghold, in the Turkmen-Uzbek-Afghan border region by the early 1970s
(Heptner and Sludskii 1972). In the mid-1800s, tiger were killed 180km northeast of Atbasar,
Kazakhstan and near Barnaul, Russia (Ognev 1935, Mazá 1981).
These outlying records in the north of the tiger's range in the former Soviet Union are located up to
1,000 km outside their permanently inhabited range, when tigers followed herds of migratory prey
species (reindeer, wild pig). The Kazakhs recognized this phenomenon in their region by naming the tiger
the "road" or "travelling leopard" (Heptner and Sludskii 1972).
© 1996 IUCN - The World Conservation Union